Germany is a winner of globalization. German companies are highly integrated into world markets, not only through exports and imports, but also through foreign direct investment. FDI from German companies has almost increased six-fold since 1990 to around 1.2 trillion euros (2017). Bilateral investment agreements focus on the admission, treatment and protection of foreign investment. They generally cover the investments of companies or individuals of a country in the territory of its contractor. Preferential trade and investment agreements are economic and trade cooperation contracts between countries. In general, they cover a wider range of issues and are concluded at the bilateral or regional level. To be classified as I2, PTIA must, among other things, include specific provisions on foreign investment. International tax treaties focus on the issue of double taxation in the international financial field (for example.
B the regulation of transactions on income, real estate or financial transactions). They are often concluded bilaterally, although some of them also involve a larger number of countries. These legal instruments are at the forefront of efforts to develop international rules on capital flows, international investment and trade in services. The second era, from 1989 to the present day, is marked by a generally more welcoming feeling about foreign investment and a significant increase in the number of ILOs. This growth of the ILO was due, among other things, to the opening of many developing countries to foreign investment, which hoped that the conclusion of ILO would make it a more attractive destination for foreign companies. In the mid-1990s, three multilateral agreements were also concluded on investment issues in the Uruguay Round trade negotiations and on the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). These included the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), the Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIMS) and the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS). In addition, PTIA, like regional, inter-regional or multilateral agreements, increased during this period, as illustrated by the conclusion of NAFTA in 1992 and the implementation of the ASEAN Framework Agreement on ASEAN Investments in 1998. In general, these agreements have also begun to intensify investment liberalization.  However, the SAIs could enter a new era, as regional agreements such as the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement and dozens of existing or under-negotiated bilateral agreements will supplant traditional bilateral agreements.
Another important trend is the multiplicity of agreements.  As a result, the developing international CEW system has been likened to a metaphor for a “spaghetti shell.”