Four Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and each European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The legal framework for the International Space Station is based on three levels of international cooperation agreements. The Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station, often referred to as the “IGA”, is an international treaty signed on 29 January 1998 by the fifteen governments involved in the space station project.* This key document at the governmental level “establishes a framework for long-term international cooperation based on a genuine partnership for the detailed planning, development, operation and use of a permanent inhabited space. Civilian space station for peaceful purposes. In accordance with international law” (Article 1); The legal framework of the International Space Station recognizes and goes further with the basic rules of liability for space activities set out in international space treaties such as the Liability Convention (1972). The intergovernmental agreement allows space station partner states to extend their national competences in space, so that the elements they have made available (e.g. B laboratories) are treated in the same place as the territories of the Partner States. The purpose of these space agency-level agreements is to describe in detail the roles and responsibilities of the agencies in the planning, development and use of the station. In addition, the agreements aim to create the management structure and interfaces necessary to ensure efficient use of the station; The allocation rights of the European Space Agency (8.3% of the resources used by the space station (e.g. B communications) and 8.3% of the occupancy time, or about 13 hours per week. With regard to the housing of users (e.g.
B laboratories), ESA has entered into an exchange agreement with NASA to use 51% of the European Columbus laboratory in exchange for shuttle transport services. The common philosophy of this approach is that goods and services are exchanged by space agencies without exchanging funds. The exchange system significantly reduced technical and financial risks and supported the process of standardization and collaboration in the space station program. The terms of each exchange or sale are determined on a case-by-case basis by the parties to the transaction and must comply with the general legal framework of the space station. Therefore, each space agency and its related companies – any sector or academic institution under contract – are required to label their technical data or goods with an indication indicating specific conditions for the use of such data or goods by other agencies, their subcontractors and subcontractors. . . .